eli5 Human dna and rna


Why is ds dna not known as ds rna?

In: 0

DS DNA is not known as DS RNA because DNA and RNA are two different types of molecules. DNA is a double-stranded molecule made up of four different nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine), while RNA is a single-stranded molecule made up of four different nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine).

At the time of writing, the only other answer on this thread is somewhat incorrect.

DNA stands for **deoxy**ribonucleic acid. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid.

As you will see on the diagram on [this](https://byjus.com/biology/difference-between-deoxyribose-and-ribose/) page, ribose has a hydroxyl (OH) group at the 2′ position (highlighted on the diagram). Deoxyribose does not have that group.

As the other poster said, DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded and this is true for all cellular life but…

RNA can and does form bonds with itself which can be seen in the dsRNA [viruses](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-stranded_RNA_viruses) like *Rotavirus*.

Interestingly, there is a single family that has numerous ssDNA viruses in it, the [Monodnaviria](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monodnaviria).

The other poster said that DNA and RNA are made up of various nitrogenous bases and they got the names and classifications correct. However, the full molecule of each of DNA and RNA consists of the sugar polymer backbone of deoxyribose or ribose in which each sugar molecule has a single nitrogenous base attached. It is those bases that form connections between the strands.