Eli5 hyponatremia(low sodium) vs low water (fluid) symptoms differences?

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Eli5 hyponatremia(low sodium) vs low water (fluid) symptoms differences?

In: Biology
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The symptoms of both hyponatremia and dehydration can be fairly nonspecific and similar (fatigue, headache, malaise) and proceed to things like seizures and altered mental status. What really differentiates the two is the underlying cause.

Hyponatremia can be caused by many things, among them a failure to remove excess fluid (think liver/heart failure), large amounts of fluid loss (diarrhea), or salt wasting (kidney disease).

Dehydration can also be caused by fluid loss (diarrhea, sure, but more commonly from sweating) as well, however it can also be caused by an excess of salt or simply a reduced sensation of thirst.

As a result, healthcare workers will rely on lab tests and a clinical history to figure out what may be the cause, rather than diagnose one or the other simply from the symptoms.