How are the close up shots in various National Geographic shows or in shows like Perfect Planet shot?

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How are the close up shots in various National Geographic shows or in shows like Perfect Planet shot?

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Usually these shots taken are from a decent distance away using a special lense. Think of those guys in the NFL with those mega scope looking cameras on the sidelines.

Option 1: Extreme telephoto lense. The camera is more like a telescope, and is much further away than you think.

Option 2: Stealth and automated cameras. There’s no human nearby; the camera was left behind and the animals naturally wandered close by to observe without scaring the animals.

Option 3: Patience and exposure. The camera crew sat in an environment for days, weeks, or months until the animals were confident enough to wander closer.

Option 4: Staged Shots. You’re actually seeing an animal in captivity, such as a research & conservation center, and the animal has been positioned for the shot in a controlled environment.