how does a device battery charge & die?


how does a device battery charge & die?

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Basically, you have a positively charged and a negatively charged side within the battery. Using the battery means letting the charge slowly tend towards equalization. The path you allow is your circuit using the flowing charge in the process. Once enough of the charge within the battery has drifted towards more equal charge, the difference in charge means the process becomes slower and slower until you can’t extract usable energy. Letting it discharge too much would also cause damage in the sense that you might not be able to use the full battery for this process again after recharging.

Battery is made of cleverly arranged material that can react in 2 different directions: on their own and produce electricity, or in the other direction given electricity.

For example, water is hydrogren (H) and oxygen (O). If you burn H & O you gets energy (in the form of heat). If you run electrical current through water, it separates back to H and O.

The burning step in my example = battery usage.
The “running current to separate back to H & O” = the charging step.

Obviously we don’t have water battery because the usage step produces heat instead of electricity, so we choose material that release electricity instead, such as Lithium mixture. This is why those batteries are called Lithium Ion.

Material wears and tears. That’s why battery die eventually.