How does coal / sand not fly off the back of an open train truck or bed while the train is in motion?

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How does coal / sand not fly off the back of an open train truck or bed while the train is in motion?

In: Physics
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Well it sort of does if it’s given enough of a shove by the wind.

But in general the particles are roughly shaped. These rough shapes interlock together creating friction which increases the amount of force required to lift the particles into the air.

Sand is usually inside metal tanks. Coal is pretty large chunks of stuff. Trains don’t move that fast, or change direction that much and acceleration is very slow.

It does sometimes. My grandfather used to walk along the train tracks to pick up the bits of coal to heat the family home with his brother, back in the Great Depression.