How does your body decide how much water to send to your bladder, sweat pores and any other organs needing it?

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How does your body decide how much water to send to your bladder, sweat pores and any other organs needing it?

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It doesn’t decide. It pumps water through the body pretty evenly (although blood vessels can expand and constrict to reduce blood flow to an area, which will also slightly reduce water flow). Each individual organ uses the water it needs, but the less water is available in total, the harder it is for any given organ to use it (this didn’t need to evolve or be controlled by anything, this is just a fact of how something called osmosis works). This means you can still lose water even when you have very little water left, but the proportion of water you lose to each thing is less. You’ll still sweat, but less sweat will be made. You’ll still urinate, but less urine will be made.

The kidneys measure the levels of electrolytes( sodium, potassium etc) in your blood, sort of, depending on this your brain can release diuretic (increase pee) or anti diuretic (decrease pee) hormones. Sweat is controlled more on temperature, so increase in temperature will cause an increase in sweat.

There are pressure sensing cells in some of your arteries. When the blood pressure is too high, they signal the kidneys to remove water from your blood and for the arteries to relax a bit. This tends to lower blood pressure. When the blood pressure is too low, they signal arterial constriction and water retention, which increases your blood pressure. Your kidneys will filter out sodium and other electrolytes and then reabsorb them. When you eat too much sodium, it tends to make you retain water, which increases your blood pressure.