In a world full of VPNs, how do governments and corporations point a finger at a certain country for hacking their infrastructure?

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In a world full of VPNs, how do governments and corporations point a finger at a certain country for hacking their infrastructure?

In: Technology

>In a world full of VPNs, how do governments and corporations point a finger at a certain country for hacking their infrastructure?

Something as trivial as an IP log of recent connections isn’t really a relevant factor in these situations.
Some concerted efforts of targeted digital vandalism are so demanding and complex, so expensive and resource-extensive, that the only conclusion left to make for any security auditor is that the attack was conducted by another *nation*, as only another nation could have had the means to do it. The rest is following up on individual leads, money trails and narrowing down motivations and capabilities – regular (albeit high-level) intelligence work.
Actually publicly pointing a finger is a whole separate diplomatic decision though and can, of course, be done either with or without any evidence.