What causes tolerance to spicy or sour foods?

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What causes tolerance to spicy or sour foods?

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Like how certain people are able to handle spicier or more sour foods than others

When you eat foods containing capsaicin, your TRPV1 receptors open up and let sodium and calcium ions in, which sends pain signals to the brain. But with repeated exposure, the calcium ions close off the receptor and prevent further pain signal transmission.

I built tolerance by eating a certain level of spicy/sour until it seems less so. Then I level up. (For example: level 1 sour is probably pickles, level 1 spicy would probably be banana peppers – that’s my observation, I’m sure there are better examples)

I was looking for an answer that explains this genetically moreso than tolerance built up by external factors

Lots of comments about building physical tolerance but I feel like there’s also a mind-body connection at play too. Similar to how some people get pleasure from physical pain. If you like the feeling, I’m sure you’re going to go out of your way to eat more spicy food even though your eyes are watering and got snot dripping from your nose.

I heard that some people who eat spicy food, feel it come out spicy the other end. I have never had this happen. Is it because I have been exposed to spicy food all my life?

I know spiciness is just exposure rather than any genetic component.

Not sure about sour though.

I do know anecdotally that I’ve loved sour even as a small child. My mom tried to give me a lemon as a baby, just to get the puckered “oh hell no” reaction out of me, and instead I loved the hell out of it. And as an older child, I’d eat so much sour stuff that the acids in it would wear away a few layers of my tongue. My mom doesn’t like sour, but my dad has always been fond of it.