What is the advantage of conducting medical experiments at the ISS? Referring to the Axiom Mission 2.
The effects of microgravity causes many medical issues that are proportionate to the amount of time spent in microgravity. Bone loss is a major one; without the stresses caused from living at 1g, bone density decreases. As bones are made primarily from hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate), there is an increase in calcium in the blood, which filters through the kidneys and peed away.
Heavy exercise can help reduce this bone loss, but cannot stop it completely. Another issue is how the cardiovascular system forces an excessive amount of blood to the head. Usually this system fights against gravity, but on orbit, it causes congestion and swelling of the head. This can physically squish the eyeballs causing vision problems.
Then there are a myriad of smaller complications, like losing the bottom pad of your feet (the calluses), etc…, But the ones I’ve mentioned are the big issues.
This needs to be corrected before humans will travel to Mars. Having a spacecraft capable of spinning and creating centrifugal force could be a straight forward way to correct this. Maybe such a spacecraft would need to create 1g specifically, perhaps even 0.5g or 0.75g would suffice.
Mostly it details the biological effects of zero gravity on the human body which is key to keeping our astronauts healthy, and helping us test countermeasures for the problems we’ve already encountered with long term time in space.