When do we double the consonant in past tense verbs?

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For example in word “travel” we write “travelled” with double l, in word “refer” we use “referred” with double r etc. But in words like “open, borrow” we don’t double them.
What exactly is the rule?

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[https://www.britannica.com/dictionary/eb/qa/Doubling-the-final-consonant-before-adding-ed-or-ing#:~:text=In%20a%20word%20with%201,or%20y%20as%20a%20consonant](https://www.britannica.com/dictionary/eb/qa/Doubling-the-final-consonant-before-adding-ed-or-ing#:~:text=In%20a%20word%20with%201,or%20y%20as%20a%20consonant).

1. In a word with 1 syllable, double the final consonant ONLY if the word ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant.
2. In a word with 2 or more syllables, double the final consonant ONLY if the word ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant AND the final syllable is stressed.
3. At the end of a word, don’t count w, x, or y as a consonant.