Why are sperm cells different if they are all cells from the same parent?


Why are sperm cells different if they are all cells from the same parent?

In: Biology

When the body makes things, they aren’t perfect. It’s really as simple as that. We are chemical/biological organisms not robots made in a factory.

Humans, for example, have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each sperm has 23 chromosomes (not pairs). This means they get 1 or the other of each.

Your mother contributes half her DNA to you, and your father half his DNA to you.

The differences lie in what half you get. Each sperm is given a random half of your parent’s DNA, so they are all different that way.

Because we have a HUGE amount of genes in our body, only half of which (less actually in some sperm cells or eggs) are put into each cell.

Long ago, evolution decided that a wide genetic difference in a species creates a higher chance of survival.

So, by mixing up genes, it ensures that SOME offspring will be better adapted in a changing environment, and some offspring won’t,allowing only genes needed for survival in the current situation are passed, but also allowing genes that aren’t currently useful, but may become useful someday, to also hang around.

Its like investing In a bunch of different stocks to ensure you don’t lose everything because of one problem

You have two copies of each autosomal chromosome. One from your father and one from your mother.

When a person produces sperm (or mature eggs) there’s a process called meiosis which separates one copy of each. It might be from your father, your mother, or they might mix and match in a process called recombination. This is different for each chromosome…

As you can imagine, this leads to tons of possible combinations of genetic material.

Sperm (and egg) cells only have half as much DNA in them as normal cells. The normal cell contains enough DNA to make a whole person, but you need to combine an egg and a sperm to do that.

None of the other comments are really answering your question.

Normally, when a cell divides it duplicates it’s DNA so that each resulting cell has a full set of chromosomes. However the division that leads to sperm (and egg) cells is a different process. As others have stated, each resulting cell only have half the chromosomes. But, before the chromosomes split apart, they swap some DNA with each other. This allows the DNA to be mixed up a little, instead of just a clean half.

All cells in your body serve a specific purpose, sperm cells are just built to deliver your DNA to an egg. They have 1/2 of your DNA, split up because mixing up DNA is better in the long run, and they have a little tail that moves them forward (and probably some ways to sense what direction am egg is in). That’s all they need to be for the job they do.