Eli5 how do cryostats work , something with this degree of insulation ?

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Eli5 how do cryostats work , something with this degree of insulation ?

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My general understanding is that they work like refrigerators, but on a much colder scale. A liquid is cooled using some sort of engine. This liquid is pumped through coils around the box you’re trying to cool. Any heat inside that box will naturally flow into the super-cooled liquid. Once the liquid exits the coil, it’s cooled down again before being sent back through the coil.

The whole point of a cryostat is that you use a vacuum to minimise heat transfer. The vacuum eliminates convection and minimises conduction (along with good design of whatever is inside), and you use surface coatings and radiation shields to limit radiation.

Thus you can keep stuff at cryogenic temperatures without conventional insulation or ridiculous heat loads.