eli5 why do militaries shell and bombard at night? Why not during daytime?

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Doesn’t the darkness make things more difficult?

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While I’m sure it’s not a primary reason, shelling at night when more people are trying to sleep would have a greater psychological effect than during the day.

A large part of the reason why they are shelling near/in populated areas is psychological warfare. Doing this at night as well as during the day reinforces the idea that they can come down anywhere at anytime, never letting people rest or sleep. It’s also not really that much harder in the dark.

Yes, but it also makes it more difficult for people that are trying to shell, bombard, shoot at, or otherwise kill you. If you have mobile artillery and are for example, indiscriminately shelling residential areas and don’t care if you hit a police station or the apartment complex a block over, attacking at night means your own forces are harder to spot and target for a counterattack.

It’s harder to determine where the artillery is coming from at night, lessening the risk of a counterattack against vulnerable artillery pieces.

Persistent bombardment night and day also plays a psychological role in decreasing morale.

Your own accuracy will be marginally lower at night, but when you’re indiscriminately shelling a city that’s not all that important.

Because you can do it at night.

During the day, you can see what you’re doing and accomplish more militarily valuable tasks. But, you don’t want your enemy to rest just because you can’t see what you’re doing. Shelling randomly does a pretty low cost job of that.

The alternative, fighting at night with night vision, that’s only for a military with lots of money, like the Americans.