How are companies able to manufacture each pixel on a screen, given how tiny they are and make them work the way they want??

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How are companies able to manufacture each pixel on a screen, given how tiny they are and make them work the way they want??

In: Technology

They don’t manufacture each pixel individually and then combine them to make a screen. They essentially “print” the pixels directly onto the screen in a process called [photolithography](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photolithography), which is the same process that is used to make CPUs.

In a nutshell, it involves applying a layer of a UV-sensitive coating onto the base material that makes up screen (or the CPU in the case of making a processor). An image of the electronics that make up the pixels is projected onto the coating with UV light, which causes the coating to harden in the places where the light hits is. The non-hardened coating is washed off, and then other chemicals are used to etch the base material where it’s *not* protected by the hardened, UV-sensitve coating. Then the UV-sensitive coating is dissolved with a different chemical, and you’re left with millions of microscopic, etched electronic components.

That process is then repeated on the material to create all the needed layers of electronics.

Imagine that you are screen-printing a shirt. You could place each spot of ink manually, but that would be a massive pain, so instead you make a negitive image of the print, and use that to apply the ink.

You can do the same thing with electronics. If you use negitive images of where you want each material, and apply some chemical magic, you can make a decent sized panel of LEDs, and those LEDs become your pixels.

Typically they can’t make a whole 50+ inch screen at once, so they would make smaller panels, and link them together on a stronger backing material.

Similar process was used for LCD TVs, but the thing they printed was the conductors that move the liquid crystals.

And the phosper that makes the colors for a CRT TV would have had a similar process.

TLDR: make an image of what the parts should look like, then apply magic.