how do hot springs exist in cold mountain ranges? That always got me confused.

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how do hot springs exist in cold mountain ranges? That always got me confused.

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There is active volcanism below the ground, meaning that there is some hot magma not too deep down in those places. This hot magma heats the ground waters, and they rise to the surface to make hot springs.

It may seem counterintuitive when one thinks of caves, but the earth is actually consistently warmer the farther down you go. I was told by a mining engineer that there’s a widely recognized formula for this: 1 degree (F) hotter for every 70 feet of depth.

Mountains are created when tectonic plates collide. The violent borders between tectonic plates are *also* volcano hot spots, as the instability allows magma to flow higher up into the crust. The warmth from the magma will then sometimes heat up underground water, creating a hot spring.

As someone else said, the further down you go, the hotter Earth tends to be.

Any water that gets in contact with warm Earth will rise its temperature due to thermal conduction. If it had enough time, it would reach thermal equolibrium but usually, due to its flowing nature, there is not enough time.

When water reaches the surface, it loses some temperature, but usually not enough to feel cold.