how do non drug induced Visual Hallucinations work ? what happens in the brain that makes the eyes see something that isn’t there?

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how do non drug induced Visual Hallucinations work ? what happens in the brain that makes the eyes see something that isn’t there?

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Under the effects of LSD, different parts of your brain gain access to communicate with your visual cortex, allowing your usually unconscious mental content to manifest itself in your conscious visual experience.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855588/

“Importantly, a very strong relationship was also observed between increased V1 RSFC and decreased alpha power in occipital sensors, suggesting that as well as being commonly related to visual hallucinations, these physiological effects are closely interrelated. The increase in V1 RSFC under LSD is a particularly novel and striking finding and suggests that a far greater proportion of the brain contributes to visual processing in the LSD state than under normal conditions. This expansion of V1 RSFC may explain how normally discreet psychological functions (e.g., emotion, cognition, and indeed the other primary senses) can more readily “color” visual experience in the psychedelic state.”

When I was very very ill I descended into auditory and visual hallucinations, they gradually increased in frequency and severity over weeks until they were absolutely indistinguishable from real life. The very best way I could describe how it felt would be to compare it to my mind copy and pasting visual information and the memory of different sounds (such as lines of conversation said to me by family members at earlier times and held in my head like a sound clip on a computer) it would take a snippet of my reality or memory and basically copy and paste it all over either my sense of seeing or hearing… it was almost unbelievable at the time when I finally realized it was LITERALLY all in my head

Our eyes filter things in a way that’s useful for us to function, not necessarily a representation of what’s “really” there. Objects could be fuzzy, or less so, or whathaveyou.

You could easily have a halllucination by your eyes finding a pattern in something that is false, then the brain reinforcing that idea so you can quickly interact with it.

Oliver Sacks wrote a [great book](https://bookshop.org/p/books/hallucinations-oliver-sacks/9799237?ean=9780307947437) entitled *Hallucinations* which is just about this phenomenon.