How does 5G wireless technology work?

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I keep hearing about 5G and I want to know how it works.I searched on this forum and only got answers talking about the benefits 5G will supposedly have, not the technology.

1G is basically a walkie-talkie. Inefficient use of frequency.

2G is the digitization of the spectrum that used it much more efficiently. You didn’t jam the entire frequency when you talked.

3G is basically 2G for voice and the ability to send out packets in open spectrum.

4G is prioritizing packets to eliminate spikes in the network to increase capacity.

But for the life of me, and I’ve spent a lot of time working it out, I can’t figure out what 5G does. There are a couple ways of testing this out. If you go to the Wikipedia page for 4G, you’ll see the standards listed out. If you go to the Wikipedia archive, you see how the page looked 10 years ago. And the people that wrote it then had a pretty good what 4G would be. But if you go the 5G Wikipedia page today, you’ll see no standards. You’ll see a bunch of guesses and ideas about what it *could* be, but no real standards.

Is it beam forming wireless? MIMO? Edge-computing? What exactly is the standard?

In: Engineering

You can find a complete outline of the most up to date 5G standards published by [3GPP](https://www.3gpp.org/specifications). DR 21.915 provides a summary of each Release, The current standard, 1.1.0 can be found in release 15:

The 5G requirements have been defined in terms of new services and markets by SA1, under the “SMARTER” work item. These are defined mostly in TS 22.261 [1], which describes different types of requirements for different 5G usage:

– Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): the requirements are defined on high data rates, higher traffic or connection density, high user mobility, and the requirements related to various deployment and coverage scenarios. The scenarios address different service areas (e.g., indoor/outdoor , urban and rural areas, office and home, local and wide areas connectivity), and special deployments (e.g., massive gatherings, broadcast, residential, and high-speed vehicles). The scenarios and their performance requirements can be found in table 7.1-1 of TS 22.261 [1]. For instance, for the downlink, experienced data rate of up to 50 Mbps are expected outdoor and 1 Gbps indoor (5GLAN), and half of these values for the uplink. For services to an airplane, a bitrate of 1,2 Gbps is expected per plane.

– Critical Communications (CC) and Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC): Several scenarios require the support of very low latency and very high communications service availability. These are driven by the new services such as industrial automation. The overall service latency depends on the delay on the radio interface, transmission within the 5G system, transmission to a server which may be outside the 5G system, and data processing. Some of these factors depend directly on the 5G system itself, whereas for others the impact can be reduced by suitable interconnections between the 5G system and services or servers outside of the 5G system, for example, to allow local hosting of the services. The scenarios and their performance requirements can be found in table 7.2.2-1 of TS 22.261 [1]. For instance, in the context of remote control for process automation, a reliability of 99,9999% is expected, with a user experienced data rate up to 100 Mbps and an end-to-end latency of 50 ms. This is provided in particular through the Edge Computing capability described below.

– Massive Internet of Things (mIoT). Several scenarios require the 5G system to support very high traffic densities of devices. The Massive Internet of Things requirements include the operational aspects that apply to the wide range of IoT devices and services anticipated in the 5G timeframe.

– Flexible network operations. These are a set of specificities offered by the 5G system, as detailed in the following sections. It covers aspects such as network slicing, network capability exposure, scalability, and diverse mobility, security, efficient content delivery, and migration and interworking.