How does a bigger dowel holds more weight than a smaller one?

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Let’s say I drill two holes in the ceiling, in different sizes. The dowel has to cover that hole so it needs more diameter to cover it. The space of the dowel will be filled by a screw that will trigger the dowel mechanism making it hook to the inside walls of the hole. Now, a bigger one can hold more weight than the smaller, but why if the grappling logic is the same?

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If you mean an anchor/expander, surely they expand more the bigger they are?
That, and the anchors are physically larger, avoiding them to both cut into (and break) the material of the ceiling as the surface area is greater, and also avoid breaking themselves.

I assume you mean these expanding ones that you put in a hole you drilled and put a screw in?

Go outside to a tree. If you lay a short, thin, but fresh twig over two branches, then try to lift yourself up on it, the twig might break or bend in a way that it comes through the branches.

Now, take a bigger stick and place it between the branches. Even though it’s as fresh and maybe even as short, if you chose a certain thickness, it won’t break or bend too much.

The weak point of drywall anchors is the drywall. If you pull too hard the drywall will crack and crumble. With a bigger anchor you spread the load out over more drywall, so it takes more force to get it all the crack and crumble.