The difference between localized and delocalized chemical bonds

808 views
0

I’m having a really hard time grasping the concept of a delocalized and a localized chemical bond.

In: Chemistry

Localised bond involved a pair of electrons that are ‘fixed’ in a region of space within a bond. Delocalised bond can be shown in benzene rings where the overlapping of regions where electrons can be, allow them to move around more freely but still keeping the bond intact

The electrons of an atom occupy certain regions around the nucleus called atomic orbitals. There are different kinds of orbitals with different shapes and energy levels, and only two electrons can be in one orbital. A chemical bond forms when two atomic orbitals of two atoms combine to form two new orbitals. These are called molecular orbitals. When you combine two atomic orbitals, you get a bonding and an anti-bonding molecular orbital. The electrons that where in the atomic orbitals are now in the molecular orbitals. When there are more electrons occupying bonding orbitals than electrons occupying antibonding orbitals, you get a chemical bond.
A “localized” bond forms between two atoms when two atomic orbitals combine, and when the electrons occupy the bonding orbital.
A “delocalized” bond forms when multiple atomic orbitals of more than two atoms combine to form multiple molecular orbitals, and when the electrons occupy more bonding than antibonding molecular orbitals.