What does a coder use when they make a program from scratch?

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I don’t understand what the starting point is. Do they just open a word document and start creating lines of code or is there some type of program that’s specifically used?

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This is very easily googleable… And it very much depends on the language used.

For python and html, for instance, you’re likely to use a simple empty document. For C++, C# or Java, there’s usually software like Visual Studio, for instance.

A compiler turns lines of code (written not in Word, but often in a text editor with better styling for code) into an executable program.

A compiler is often written in another language, and ran through that language’s compiler.

First compiler was (roughly) hand-written machine code.

So it’s compilers all the way down.

Programming has a long history, starting with automated looms during the industrial revolution. The first “programs” were written by directly setting commands on the processor; a sequence of ones and zeros that move the internal switches to the right state to do what you want (add, subtract, copy, compare etc). Only much later did people moved to more high level languages like C, Ada, Fortran etc. Their compilers in term were written in assembly (which is a more human readable form of the individual instruction patterns). The first assemblers were “written” by manually inputting instructions through punch cards or manually wired memory.

When I was getting my degree in IT at college, depending on the programming language and purpose of what I was doing I used either Netbeans or Eclipse. They’re officially referred to as an IDE (which is and integrated development environment if I remember correctly). They have color coding, indentation, debugging tools, libraries for the major programming languages, etc. I believe they’re free as well