What makes onions and garlic so rough on the system?

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Certain foods have this quality about them where they’re rough on the system, like they give you a gross ‘raw’ feeling, when you’ve had to much of it.

What is that? What is it called? What chemical or quality of these vegetables makes them like this?

Onions also make your eyes water, is that the same thing? Where the juice is somehow chemically rough on the body?

Do other animals also have a hard time digesting these?

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They’re more like herbs than foods, they have lots of volatile chemicals in them that can useful in some ways but when there’s too much of them it disrupts the functioning of the body somewhat – so you then don’t feel well.

Onions and garlic both contain a similar substance in their cells that isn’t agressive on its own, but it gets broken down into pretty aggressive byproducts once the cells are broken. This is a defense mechanism against anything that tries to eat it. That substance you perceive as garlic aroma kills a wide variety of microbes even when diluted down a hundred thousandfold, and even shows activity against cancer cells, but it gets metabolised quickly. For a lot of animals onions and their brethren are actually harmfully toxic due to differences in metabolism.