What molecules attach to a substance when it is broken in half?

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So, from what I understand (or better yet.. remember from chemistry), the forces that combine objects are basically covalent bonds. When I take a rock for example and break it into several pieces, what I basically did is break the covalent bonds of some of the material.

Once I break the covalent bonds of material, what molecules are connected to the newly created surfaces/molecules that had their covalent bonds broken?

Is it the other molecules that’ve been covalently broken, oxygen and other air molecules, or something else?

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Taking an educated guess here:

It should be whatever surrounding is (in most cases air) that gets a chance to interact with new surface first.

But not always surface will form covalent bond as soon as it gets in contact of surrounding. Depending on material, it will differ how reactive that new surface is and substances it is even reactive to.

Like a rock is reactive to air and water. That is how rocks erode over time, but process is very slow. Even if outermost layer of new surface needs to form covalent bond, it does not need to happen immediately, neither does it mean that new surface will react to anything it gets in contact with.

You don’t break covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are what keep atoms in molecules. You’re breaking molecules and _nothing_ gets attached.