ELI5, if DNA codes for proteins, how is stuff like lipids and carbohydrates made?
Proteins are little chemical machines. Many of them have the purpose of building other molecules including lipids and carbohydrates.
DNA codes for proteins, and proteins are the tools, the machinery of the cell including those that put other classes of molecules together.
DNA encodes for proteins, which are little molecular machines that perform all of the tasks needed to keep you alive. Some of the tasks performed include the steps necessary to synthesize both lipids and carbohydrates. Making a molecule like that isn’t the job of a single protein, but rather is the result of many different proteins working together, not unlike an assembly line! Other proteins will also help to fuse those parts together when required, making things like glycolipids and glycoproteins. Sometimes big combinations are made using all three classes of molecules configured together!
Proteins can form shapes that attract various molecules and line them up so they form new, more complex molecules. They’re like little magnetic assembly machines.
The proteins make the other molecules. Everything, except what you directly ingest, is handled by proteins. And since proteins are coded by DNA, that means that DNA influences everything that your body does.