eli5: Why can some plans grow just in water, but if you put to much water into a plant bowl it will die?

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eli5: Why can some plans grow just in water, but if you put to much water into a plant bowl it will die?

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Different adaptations have been evolved to survive. The way some animals can survive on grass while others cannot digest it or some can go long periods of time wo water or air while others need it often.

Many plants LOVE water and grow directly in it in nature ( like cattails, lily, bamboo, mangrove, common hyacinth for example is invasive and among fast growing and spreading plants in the world https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eichhornia_crassipes )

Nearly ALL plants whether tomatoes or cannabis or strawberries or lettuce can readily grow directly in water this is called Hydroponics
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroponics requires a balance of ph and salts and nutrients

Plants differ in requirements from temps and shade to water levels, those killed by overwatering typically is due to rotting caused by molds or bacteria or chemicals over fertilizing, some root systems designed like sponges for infrequent or prolongued dry conditions would get swollen and damaged by prolonged too much water

One of the ways that plants die from over-watering is from the roots drowning. You might not think that plant roots need oxygen, but plants don’t have lungs or blood to move oxygen around and the roots don’t perform any photosynthesis. The stagnant water pockets around the roots don’t allow oxygen to reach the roots and they die. Hydroponics systems generally aerate the water if the roots must be fully submerged, which is why land plants can be grown there but not in your flowerpot.