eli5: Why does the body heat up for an extended period of time when briefly shocked by cold water, but can feel cold for hours on end in mild conditions?

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I feel cold constantly during the day, fully clothed at room temp, but if I spend 10 seconds under a cold shower I can walk around naked for half an hour with no issue.
Why does the body refuse to regulate this way under normal conditions?

In: 0

Would be akin to drinking booze and feeling warm, but actually your body temperature is dropping because the blood vessels are expanding to make you feel warm but is concurrently exposing them closer to the surface of the skin so you cool quicker? Over time your going to lose heat quicker.

Summary: Is impromptu, immediate cold a vasodilator?