How are calculators be so small yet be programmed to give an output display to literally trillions of inputs?

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How are calculators be so small yet be programmed to give an output display to literally trillions of inputs?

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Calculators just follow rules about what to do with certain operations and how to display the output.

It doesn’t need to know 1+1, 1+2, 1+3, 1+4 etc., it just needs to know what to do with A+B, and how to display the output C onto the screen.

Hold up your hands.
Each finger represents a single computer bit.
All 10 fingers allow you to count up to 1024, each finger you add doubles the number you can count to.

Now imagine the calculator is full of hundreds of teeny tiny fingers and by moving the fingers using a set of rules you can perform any basic mathmatical function.

In short, you don’t need much to reach trillions, it’s just hard to conceive of in the human brain.

As said calculators don’t store the answer for each operation, they just calculate it on the fly, just like a human. Also the components which a calculator is made from are really small themselves.