How do bleach for colours work? How do they know which colours are foreign and which ones are not?

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How do bleach for colours work? How do they know which colours are foreign and which ones are not?

In: Chemistry
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It doesn’t.
It just removes the least tightly stuck stuff.
The more concentrated the bleach, the more tightly something would have to be stuck to not get removed.

That’s why bleach can ruin the pattern of a fabric.

It can’t tell them apart, some pigments are more stable and don’t get damaged by the bleach.

I’m assuming you’re asking about hair so it’s worth saying that it’s not the same bleach that you use for cleaning (sodium hypochlorite ex chlorox) instead a concentrated form of hydrogen peroxide is used. The peroxide is less reactive and so not all of the color gets removed sometimes