How do different USB types allow better data transfer rates? What is actually happening?

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How do different USB types allow better data transfer rates? What is actually happening?

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The USB 3.0 standard introduced new connectors that had 5 extra wires: 4 of these pins were reserved for 2 new data pairs , allowing full duplex communication, (a huge increase from the single pair on the previous connector).

The type C connector optionally has two more data pairs, used by USB 3.2 gen 1×2 and usb 3.2 gen2x2 (10 and 20 gigabits per second, respectively)