How do neural connections form/look in the human brain when we learn something new?

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If two people memorize the same thing, does the newly built pattern of the neurons look the same? If we scan someone’s brain can we tell if they speak Mandarin, for example, because of specific patterns in neural connections?

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The short answer is that: for most cognitive things (i.e., not sensory input or motor output), we don’t really know that much that precisely about how exactly neural synaptic connections correspond to thoughts and learning at a fundamental level. (Brain-machine interfaces typically have to figure out what neural activity “means” empirically by associating it with sensory input or motor output.) The general belief is that the process is probably redundant (across neurons) and there’s no reason to believe that resulting patterns are consistent across people.