How do objects get the same amount of power from one port as it would from an extension cable that splits said port in 3 or 4, wouldn’t it just cut the power in half or in quarters giving less power to the object?

Power equals voltage times current. There is two ways you can wire circuits, in series or in parallel. Wiring in parallel gives you constant voltage and wiring in series gives you constant current. All domestic circuits are wired in parallel and have the same voltage on the terminals. To give an example, lets say a load is rated at 230W. That divided by domestic voltage of 230V gives you 1A of current that this load consumes. Having the same voltage in one socket, and also in all 3 or 4 sockets in the extension lead is why the power doesn’t split, load takes as many current as it needs and that multiplied by voltage is the required power.

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