How do we know how animals see?

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For example how do we know that they see ultraviolet, gamma rays or infrared? Or if they see colors or how sharp is their sight?

In: Biology

“We can find out whether an animal can see light of a particular wavelength by testing whether that light will travel through the lens of its eye. The lenses of healthy humans block ultraviolet light, so we cannot see it. But for other species, seeing ultraviolet can make it easier to see in dim light.” – http://www.bbc.co.uk/earth/story/20151019-how-do-we-know-what-animals-can-see-hear-and-smell

Basically, eyes are eyes; scientists have studied and understand the biology of how eyes work, how the cones and rods detect various frequencies (colors) of light, etc. So looking at animal eyes under the microscope, we can figure out how they see.

There’s a scene in Jurassic Park (the movie) where they explain what sound a dinosaur made when roaring, based on the shape of the bones and cartilages in its throat (its vocal cords). The process is similar to that, but with eyes and sight rather than vocal cords and sound.

Ultraviolet, gamma rays, infrared, radio, microwaves, x-rays, all of these are [frequencies of electromagnetic radiation](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum). Technically, they’re “colors of light”, if you expand the concept that “our eyes and brain interpret frequencies of light as colors” and take it beyond the range of frequencies that our human eyes can detect.