How exactly do light particles and sound waves work, and how is it that some animals manage to hear/see further than others?

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How exactly do light particles and sound waves work, and how is it that some animals manage to hear/see further than others?

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Some animals just hear and see more sensitively.

For instance a cat has a specialised membrane in its eyes called the Tapetum lucidum, its basically a reflector mirror in the eyes. It lets the light arriving in the eyes bounce around more in effect making the individual light particles more meaningful as the eyes have more opportunities to pick it up…thats why cats have those demonic eyes at night. Alligators and deer and others too… its literally just the mirroring of light. We kinda have a bit reflection too which is why flash on images can absolutely ruin portrait pictures at least on our eyes.

So for you the bit of ambient light from your window may not mean much but for your cat its enough to see just fine… so this can but doesnt always need to translate into seeing further.

As to how exactly light works… well thats a whole different story because as far as science is concerned light is both a particle… so like a bullet fired… or a wave depending if its observed or not. Our universe seems to go vague “the particle could be anywhere on this wave” and only if you check it actually decides to be there… check out then double slit experiment for extra confusion. Because in the case of light when you shoot particles through one slit apparently you shoot through both at the same time… unless you check… for extra brain melt check out the delayed choice quantum eraser Variant of the experiment…in case you want your brain to melt because apparently our universe changes this stuff up backwards in time and decides to cover its tracks if we ourselves scramble it again so we cant possibly know the outcome…. if we knew exactly how it works we essentially unlocked the admin console to reality because we kinda know what’s underlying all of reality.

Anyway sound is fairly simple. Its in Essence a shockwave just as much as the pebble you throw in water makes a wave… in water sounds move faster which is why you hear whales continents away with sensors…also whales are hella loud.. in essence sound can kill you because too much sound at once once displaces so much air that it can hurt you… or outright rupture organs which is why soundproof is important with guns… if you blow your eardrums.. well you just ripped the membrane that picks up Sound…Too much noise is what a shockwave of an explosion is… in fact whale calls and active sonar pings of submarines can turn you into a bloody pulp if you stand next to either unprotected.. a whale can literally scream you to death accidentally.

Since sound is a wave that moves through air we have also stuff like sonic booms. Because a bullet or a jet aircraft Literally flies faster than sound. So all of that just forms this loud as hell shockwave…a bullet obviously breaks it in most cases whis is why guns are loud too. Its in Essence an explosion that yeets out a thing thats faster than sound

Again here: animals have more specialized ears to pick up more. An elephant has more area to pick up sounds. A deer has very distinctly shaped ears and so on.. hence why cat ears are those triangle pointy cones that just collect lots of sound. While your ears are that weird earlobe shape which is better to find precise directions from where sounds come from but we can’t hear as well

With sight, some creatures have bigger eyes, while animals like birds tend to have retinas jam-packed with light-sensitive cells. The retina of a bird is much, much more densely packed with detectors than a human eye; if I recall, an eagle can spot a mouse on the ground from 1/4mi up.