How is tape sticky? What is responsible for this cohesiveness?

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How is tape sticky? What is responsible for this cohesiveness?

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There’s glue on one side and a coating so that the glue doesn’t stick to it very much on the other

It is basically high viscosity liquids that creates adhesiveness that sticks to materials based on pressure and surface energy of materials. Adhesion can be mechanical or specific, in mechanical the adhesion flow through pattern/texture of material whereas in specific adhesion is due to electrostatic force, van der Waals force, acid-base interaction.

There are 2 main reasons for anything being stuck to anything.

First due to positive and negative charges. On the molecular level there are differences in charges between different sides of molecule. This can be rather mild differences or more extreme but the result is positive and negative charges attracting and sticking. This is why tape is sticky.

The next is physical. This is causes by molecules getting tangled together and is essentially what Velcro is.