what makes it so difficult to print counterfeit notes and coins?

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what makes it so difficult to print counterfeit notes and coins?

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Short answer : the fact that countries do anything they can to make it difficult.

Long answer : notes, in particular, are made of :

– a specific paper

– a specific ink that, in some cases, cannot be photographed or scanned due to their special reflective properties

– specific markings. Example : Europe bank notes have uv-ink dots in certain places that authenticate the money.

Many other defense mechanism are in place. Its quite difficult to list them all, because it would help counterfeiters to bypass these features. It also depends on the country : Canadian dollars are made of plastic, so definitely no special paper for them. Instead, they have a special [coating ? Ink ?] That make some special markers only write on fake notes and not on real ones.