When do young animals know when to leave their mom?

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So I was watching Night on Earth on Netflix and wondered: how is it that polar bears (and other mammals like elephants and lions) know when to leave their mother?

In: Biology
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In a lot of species the parent gives them a subtle nudge, and then progressively less subtle nudges – including literally nudging them out of the nest.

Carnivores have been known to actively drive their young out of the territory, as they are ultimately competing for food.

More gregarious species like pidgeons or buffalo may never leave the herd, but the parents will stop feeding them when it’s time.

In a lot of specirs the young are driven out by the parent(s). It’s not a nice parting of ways but necessary as usually it is time to have the next set of offspring and they cant care for both.

In most mammalian species there is a period of time where the child is dependent upon the parent. After such period of time the child then knows enough to survive on its own or to at least not immediately die without its mother’s care. When such condition is met, inevitably there will come a day whenever the child realizes that (s)he is tired of all of the bitching and leaves.