Where from Africa are humans outside of Africa from?


After learning about the founder effect (genetic variability increasing closer to Africa), I’m interested in knowing where, and which ethnic groups from Africa did humans from outside of Africa come from (Europeans, Asians, Native Americans etc.). Is this question even answerable? Thanks.

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I’m not sure I fully understand what you’re looking for but I’ll do my best to answer.

Basically, we largely all come from Ethiopia and it’s surrounding area. Humans migrated out of Africa tens of thousands of years ago so categorizing into modern ethnic groups would be difficult because migrations took so long that really it wouldn’t matter to try. But a study done actually did find that basically everyone from outside Africa can trace themselves back to a single population that managed to cross the Red Sea, then split off into groups that eventually made their way to Europe, NA, etc.

This is a very big topic and even by researchers working on this hard to answer. From what we can tell humans evolved in the jungles in eastern Africa, from around modern day Etheopia to modern day South Africa. There were then several waves of emigrations from Africa into the other continents. But even between these waves there were lots of minor population movements and intermixing. So the modern day ethnicities did not exist, they were completely different. For this reason it is also very hard to track the exact movement of every single group. We can see how a few certain genes were able to move by seeing how they distribute in the modern population but even this is inaccurate.

Modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb – the strait between Africa and Arabia which was solid land at the time – and went on to settle Asia and Australia. Then they’ve left through Levant (the place where Israel is now) and settled Middle East and Europe. But it’s not all so clear-cut. For example, Levant was first occupied by Neanderthals, then moderns moved in, but then they’ve left and Neanderthals appeared again, and then finally moderns replaced them for a second time. And linking genetics to this is very sketchy. We actually don’t know about it much beyond the fact that all moderns outside of Africa cross-bred with Neanderthals.

Also locations in Africa are irrelevant to founder effect. One thing we should keep in mind that the size of humanity was very small at that time. Entire continents only had like a few dozen thousand people living in them.

No one knows with 100% accuracy but the Great Rift area from Ethopia to mozambique is as of now considered to be the origin of humans.