Why did the Vikram Lander of Chandrayaan-2 Mission fail to deploy properly?


Seeking a technical yet simple explanation for beginner

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Nobody knows for certain.

Communication was lost during the final descent phase, likely due to a loss of power.

The ISRO report on Vikram’s loss suggests that the available solar power in the moon’s polar region may have been insufficient to power the lander, and goes on to recommend various types of power backups for spacecraft operating in this region, which Vikram did not come equipped with.

This hypothesis fits the data as communication with the lander was lost at a very low altitude (~2km above the surface) and would have had half (or even much less) the solar power available at a higher altitude.