Why does pain cause one to feel dizzy?

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for example, when I got bad diarrhea or period cramps, I start feeling lightheaded and like im going to faint. It also clogs my ability to think and I have to take a while to recall certain things

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It doesn’t. Rather, it doesn’t do so for everybody. If you have a vagus nerve issue, then things in your gut will have a disproportionate effect on your mind. Unfortunately, modern medicine is pretty bad at diagnosing and addressing issues like that. :/

My foot was run over and I passed out. I passed out during my first tattoo, and I tore my leg and saw the fat layer and passed out. I kind of like this, because I’m not there for the pain. The tattoo one was embarrassing, though. I got over that. I also have very low blood pressure regularly. That may have something to do with it.

Bearing down like when you have a bowel movement (specifically, exhaling against a closed glottis) can stimulate the vagus nerve, which can cause your blood pressure to drop. It’s called a “Valsalva maneuver”. It has certain medical applications.

Otherwise, pain or emotional distress (e.g. seeing something traumatic) can cause a vasovagal response. Same idea — vagus nerve is stimulated, blood pressure drops. The feeling of lightheadedness and possibly fainting (syncope) can sometimes occur depending on the severity of the reaction.

The neurotransmitters which your brain uses for thinking clearly; processing information are also used by your body for pain control. Extreme pain can affect your brains ability to process the signals it’s receiving from different areas of your body including from the vestibular system which is one of the sensory systems that provides your brain with information about balance, motion, and the location of your head and body in relation to your surroundings.