How do scientists and nutritionist discover the nutritional needs of humans and pets without starving them to death?

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How do scientists and nutritionist discover the nutritional needs of humans and pets without starving them to death?

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decades of treating diseases pretty much.

The US Surgeon general compiled a report in the late 80s of what their recommended daily values of each nutrient was based on compiling data from all the decades of doctors treating people with nutrient deficiencies.

Basically, The % daily value isn’t necessarily the amount you absolutely have to have, its the amount that on average makes the associated disease/side effect of nutrient deficiency go away. For example, Vitamin C. People with vitamin C deficiencies develop scurvy. And doctors figured out that if a patient can keep their daily intake of vitamin C around at least 100mg for the months afterwards (after an initial few days where they flood the body with vitamin C), it keeps the scurvy from coming back. A guess what the recommended daily amount it? about 100mg.