How do the scientists know what the core of other planets are made of, (eg: Mars’ core is iron, Neptune’s liquid diamond) even though mankind has never been there?

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How do the scientists know what the core of other planets are made of, (eg: Mars’ core is iron, Neptune’s liquid diamond) even though mankind has never been there?

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Astronomers have telescopes that can photograph the planets and other objects under different spectrums of light, such as X-ray, gamma rays, and ultra-violet. Each mineral reacts to light differently and we can deduce the composition of something from far away without having to sample it firsthand.

Edit: I’m not an expert. And apparently this is just how they detect atmospheres of objects in space. My bad.

No, they dont guess. Their mass is determined by their gravity, which is determined by how they affect over objects. This gives them indications on density. Spectrometry will give them the atmospheric makeup and density and math solves the rest.

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/astronomy/chapter/composition-and-structure-of-planets/

Guessing. Lol, just feaking lol. Ignore everything that guy wrote.