How does Smart cellphone Chargers work?

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They have different outputs like 3v, 5v, 12v How do they know what to use.
Also can I use a Smart 12v on a device that recieves 5v? Will it burn it?

In: Technology
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it’s all about protocols. There is some information that goes through the cellphone and the charger. This information includes the charger asking hey, how many volts and amps do you need, and the phone replying. I don’t know how smart the smart charger is but phones these days are safe to be used with higher wattage chargers. But don’t charge a Nintendo switch with whatever you like. If protocols don’t match between the phones and chargers, the basic USB protocol will be used which is 0.5amps and 5v. So for instance, Huawei has their own fast charging protocol that allows 25W charging, and Samsung has another protocol that allows 25W charging. But switching chargers, they won’t necessarily charge at 25W because they have different protocols, even if they are rated for the same current and voltage.

So for your smart charger to work at 5v, it depends on how smart it is. If it isn’t very smart, it would not charge at all because your phone will block it, or will charge very slowly at 2.5W

Okay, USB is a standard and runs on 5V by default. It had four wires, two for power (positive and negative) and two for data. A dumb charger will just provide 5V on the power lines. A smart charger will output 5V first, communicate with the device through the data lines to decide on a new voltage, and then switch to the desired voltage if an agreement is reached. That way, a dumb device will not be damaged by overvoltage.