What are the mechanisms that enable giant tortoises to have exceedingly long natural life spans?

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Is there a genetic component or limited lack of predators?

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The mechanisms that enable giant tortoises to have long natural life spans are not well understood, but it is likely that a combination of factors contribute to their longevity. Some possible factors include genetics, a low metabolism, and a lack of predators in their natural habitats.

Giant tortoises are known for their slow metabolism, which means that they burn calories at a much slower rate than most other animals. This slow metabolic rate may help them to conserve energy and avoid wasting resources, which may contribute to their long life spans. In addition, giant tortoises are typically found in isolated environments, such as remote islands, where they are not exposed to many predators. This lack of predation may also help them to avoid the dangers that can shorten the life spans of other animals.

Overall, the long life spans of giant tortoises are likely the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Rate/age of living theory. Raymond Pearl based his Age of living theory upon the earlier work of Max Rubner and proposed that the maximum lifespan of an animal was related to its metabolic rate sometimes viewed as the number of heartbeats. However this may only be part of the picture with the role of reactive oxygen species in cell deterioration and eventually cell death also playing a part. – https://youtu.be/ctEIbPI6A4U

Low metabolism: it’s much slower than most other animals, which means that their bodies use energy at a much slower rate, and because of that their bodies dkn’t wear out as quickly as the bodies of other animals.

Also, they have a strong inmune system, which helps them to avoid getting sick and extend their life span. And their strong and protective shell helps them from predators, being less likely to be injured or killed, so they can live longer.

It is about the oxygen you consume. Oxygen is a slow killing poison, so if you consume more (fast metabolism, lots of heartbeat) you die early, and vice versa.