What gives acids their ability to eat away at things? And why is hydrogen in so many acids?

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Hydroflouric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric acid all have hydrogen and are pretty strong. Bisulfate is exactly sulfuric acid but with one less hydrogen. So what does the extra one cause it to become a acid?

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The word acid literally refers to any compound capable of forcing a hydrogen ion onto another molecule.

When the receiving substance is being impregnated with those extra hydrogen ions it disrupts them and causes them to break down

Acidic means it has extra H+.

H+ is pretty strong, given it’s essentially a free floating proton, so it overpowers existing bonds, eating at things.

Yes, the extra hydrogen does cause it do be an acid. Generally an acid is characterized by having H+ ions (brondstad-lowry acid). There are some acids that do not have this ion and are in a different category. The corrosive ability of acids is due to the chemical reaction caused by the charge.