what is the difference between genetic editing and mutation ?

626 views
0

what is the difference between genetic editing and mutation ?

In:

Genetic editing is deliberate – someone consciously decides the outcome they want, and works on the DNA (adding, deleting or modifying as necessary) until they get that outcome. Because it’s intentional, it’s almost entirely positive. Gene editing can, for example, make an organism less susceptible to a disease, or increase fertility.

Mutation just happens, and can be either positive or negative for the organism. Maybe you get resistance to disease. Maybe you get an extra finger.

Imagine the word “Bob” formed from bits of glass.
Say also that you want that word to now say “Boo”
Mutation would be throwing rocks at the “Bob” until by luck you hit the top part of the ‘b’ so you turn the ‘b’ into an ‘o’. Most of the time nothing happens. Most of the rest of the times, you get things that aren’t even letters anymore. Sometimes you get “Bub”, “Rob” or “bob” as your rocks hit something else, you might have use for that. But throw enough rocks and you might get “Boo”
Gene editing would be going in and carefully cutting off the top part of the ‘b’ or removing the ‘b’ entirely and replacing it with your own ‘o’
In mutation, the rocks can be anything from natural radiation from the sun, artificial radiation, chemicals, or whatever can smash up DNA.
We don’t really have good gene editing tools yet.
Back to our analogy, the most common one is to essentially make an ‘o’ really sticky, the shooting it at the “Bob” and hoping it knocks out the ‘b’. Better than the rocks, but not much better.
This is taking a gene from somewhere, sticking it in a bunch of “copy this” code and literally shooting it in with a pressure gun.
CRISPR is the up and coming thing that promises to be able to do the letter deletion/replacement/cutting.
It uses tools bacteria used to remember how to beat viruses.
We’re still working out the bugs, namely, that most organisms have a ton of stuff designed to kill anything bacteria related, CRISPR included.