How do forces (like tension, compression, etc.) work on an atomic level? What is actually happening?

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How do forces (like tension, compression, etc.) work on an atomic level? What is actually happening?

In: Physics

i only know about metals. When you push your thumb against metals you are pushing against the electrons. electrons have strong forces between them (not so much by their charge, but for their quantum mechanics of Fermions).

The vast majority of them are electrostatic interactions between charged particles, typically the electrons (which are arranged in clouds around positive nuclei). Like particles repel, so electrons repel other electrons

When you grab something, you’re pushing electrons closer until that repulsion is too much. It goes like 1/r^2, so it grows rapidly at small distances